Nifurtimox: Mechanism of Action, Uses, Interactions, and Adverse Effects


Benznidazole and Nifurtimox The trypanosomatid parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, which threatens millions of people in South America. As with other neglected diseases, there is essentially no pharmaceutical industry research and development effort, and treatment is based on two medications, Nifurtimox and Benznidazole, which were found empirically more than thirty years ago. Nifurtimox Mechanism … Read more

Lidocaine: Uses, Interactions, Mechanism of Action, Side Effects and Dosage


What is Lidocaine? Lidocaine falls under the category of medium-acting local anesthetics. Chemically it is an amide. We have a sense of feeling when we touch something. When a local anesthetic is applied on an area of the body for example on your fingertip, you will no more be able to sense the feeling of … Read more

Hydroxocobalamin: Uses, Mechanism of Actions, and Deficiency Symptoms


What is Hydroxocobalamin or Vitamin B12? Vitamin B12 also known as hydroxocobalamin or cyanocobalamin, is essential for purine nucleotide synthesis, certain amino acid metabolism, and proper cell development and reproduction. Hydroxocobalamin is a kind of vitamin B12 that is used to prevent and cure vitamin B12 insufficiency. Since this interacts with cyanide to create cyanocobalamin, … Read more

Hydroxocobalamin vs Cyanocobalamin: What’s the Difference?


The name “vitamin B12” refers to a category of cobalt-containing compounds with a macrocyclic tetrapyrrole group connected to a dimethyl benzimidazole nucleotide. Vitamin B12 is converted to two active coenzyme forms in the body: Deoxyadenosylcobalamin Methylcobalamin Types of Vitamin B12 Vitamin B12 exists in the following four forms: Hydroxycobalamin Cyanocobalamin Methylcobalamin Adenosylcobalamin Cyanocobalamin vs Methylcobalamin … Read more

Azathioprine: Side Effects, Mechanism of Action, Contraindications, Uses, and Interactions


Azathioprine is classified under immunosuppressive drugs. It has been categorized under immunosuppressive metabolites. It is the very first among immunosuppressive agents which are used in organ transplantation extensively to prevent rejection reactions after transplant (especially used after kidney transplant). As the name suggests, it thwarts organ rejection after transplantation by suppressing the immune system of … Read more