Subclavian artery

Subclavian Artery Stenosis

Subclavian Artery is one of the arteries and it is a major Artery in the human body. The veins, arteries and the heart collectively make the cardiovascular system. The main function of this is to supply the blood to all the organs in the body and the blood is the carrier of oxygen, nutrients and other blood gases and all the other things that need to be transported. The whole cardiovascular system is a really complex system in the body.

The Subclavian Artery is present just below the clavicle and just in the thorax and is paired with some of the other arteries. The location of the Subclavian Artery is very prominent and it is present in such a position that it receives the blood from the aortic arch. One of the pairs of the Artery supplies, the blood to the left arm and e right one provides the blood to the right arm.

The arteries supply blood to the body and that is exactly what the Subclavian Artery do for both the arms. The Subclavian arteries further branch to the arteries that supply blood to the brain and they are really very important.

Importance and Function of the Subclavian Artery

It is the third major vessel that emerges from the aortic arch. The aortic arch is connected directly to the heart and the blood is pumped from the heart to the aortic arch and then to the Subclavian Artery too from where it is supplied to the arms as well as the brain and this means that Subclavian Artery supplies to most of the upper part of the body. Basically, the Subclavian Artery is divided into three parts following are the parts

  • One part of the Subclavian Artery goes to the medial border of the scalenus anterior muscle.
  • The second part of it is located behind the scalenus anterior muscle.
  • The third part of it goes to the very first rib.

So, these were all the locations that the here part of the Subclavian arteries are present and on there they go to the arms, neck and the head region. The Subclavian Artery is known a Subclavian for a reason because it is present with the clavicle.

Health Problems Related to the Subclavian Artery

Stenosis is a condition in which the arteries constrict causing the blockage and this may effects the organ to which the blood is being supplied to through hat in case of the Subclavian Artery stenosis the blood supply cuts off from the head and the neck region, as well as the arms and this, may lead to some serious problems.

The Subclavian Artery stenosis is also known as the peripheral Artery disease or the Subclavian Artery disease. It is a chronic condition and can lead o he death if ignored for long. The resulting condition from it is hand claudication, cerebral hyperperfusion and other such medical problems.

On hand claudication, your hand will feel colder because of the lac of the blood supply and with brain or other major organ problems you can find out until the condition has reached too far.

Risk factors

The risk factors are the factors that promote this kind of health problems and the risk factors that we are discussing the risk factors of the Subclavian Artery Stenosis. The Subclavian Artery stenosis basically is a chronic disorder which means that the disorder progress slowly and this get treated slow loo. Fooling are the risk factors of the Subclavian Artery stenosis

  • Old Age
  • Smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension

So, these are the risk factors that can be the also or that’s when you have a greater chance of having the Subclavian Artery Stenosis.

What is the Treatment

Prevention is always better than the treatment so, in this case, you should take proper care of your health and for that, you need to get regular medical exams. The treatment of this condition is the angioplasty in which the install cardiac stats and ICD can also be done but the major surgery is the bypass.

So, these are all the treatment procedures that you need to go through if the condition is worse otherwise the medications are enough too and based on your condition your doctor may prescribe different medicines that you will be taking for the rest of your life.

Allegra vs Claritin

Allegra vs Claritin

Most of the time people can’t compare with Allegra vs Claritin but they do not know about it and take those allergies as the flu or itching etc. but most of the time they think that it is just a seasonal fever, flu or a sore throat but actually it can be some types of allergies or Claritin that you can have from changing weather, mud, grass, flowers or any other edible things.

Causes of Allergies

There are a lot of things from which people are allergies too and find it really very irritating and harmful to their health and these are as follows:

  • Change of weather
  • Grass
  • Some kind of edibles
  • Flowers
  • Trees
  • Weed
  • Dust
  • Animals

These are some of the types of things from which you can get allergy. So whenever you think or you feel that you are getting irritated from some particular thing, they always try to stay away from it as much as you can because these things might give a harmful effect to your health.

Side Effects of Allergies

There are a lot of side effects that you may have to suffer if you got any such kind of allergy or Claritin. So, here in this article, all the side effects that you can have to face during allergy are given below:

  • Watery eyes
  • Itching
  • Dry eyes
  • A cough
  • Running nose
  • Nausea
  • Sneezing
  • Lack of energy
  • Rash

These are only some of the points that are mentioned in here which shows that you are having some kind of allergy. So take a proper care of it and visit your doctor if you are facing such problem. Allergies can start at the very young age so it is necessary that kids should be taken to the doctor at the indication of any such indications so that the allergy can be identified and next time you should be prepared with an anti-allergy before the symptoms go worst.

The mechanism of allergy is very simple and it is that when an allergen enters the body it binds with the antibodies and then help with the release of histamine that causes the increase in lacrimal and nasal secretions and also can cause the itching and other cold-like symptoms. The antihistamines act in the body in such a way that they inhibit the secretion of the histamine and thus these symptoms vanish.

Allegra and Claritin

Allegra vs Claritin can be understood more clearly once you understand the drugs like Allegra and Claritin more clearly. Well, both of these drugs are the antihistamines and they act the same way as all the other antihistamines do so the mechanism of action of both of these drugs is the same. They both block the H1 receptors that stop the histamine release and hence provides relief from the symptoms of allergy.

Both of these drugs are similar and different in some way because like the mechanism of action they show some more similarities and like the side effects and some other important drug features, there is the clear difference between these two drugs. These differences help us understand the Allegra vs Claritin comparison so we can make the better decision of which drug to go for in the case of allergy.

The allergy medicines are usually available over the counter but still, you must discuss it with your doctor before use so you can avoid the complications that can arise from the use of certain drugs.

Allegra vs Claritin

There are a lot of things that can help you identify the difference between these two drugs and this Allegra vs Claritin comparison helps with that. Following are some of the drug features that help us differentiate these two drugs.

Drug Features

Apart from the normal indications for which both of these drugs are used the Claritin is also used for the treatment of the hives and itch. The active ingredients in both of these medications are also different like the Allegra has the drug ingredient known as the fenofexidine and clarity have the drug named loratadine.

Both of these drugs are available over the counter in the form of oral tablets and capsules while the Allegra is also available in the form of the suspension and the Claritin is available in the form of the chewable tablets that are flavoured so the children can take it easy.

But the children of a certain age should use these drugs only like Claritin should not be used for 6 years and 2 years if for oral solution and chewable tablets while for allergy the age range must not be less than 12 or 6 years old. So these were some of the drug features for the Allegra vs Claritin comparison.

Side Effects

Side effects also help us with the Allegra vs Claritin comparison because even though the drugs have some side effects but not all of them are same instead some of them are different too that become the base of our decision for the choice of some drug. Similar side effects experienced by both of these drugs are the

  • Nervousness
  • A headache
  • Sleep deficiency
  • Troubled breathing
  • Swelling

Now coming toward the separate side effects we must know that Allegra have side effects like

  • Flushing
  • Chest tightness
  • Vomiting

While some people taking Claritin goes through the

  • Nose bleeding
  • A sore throat
  • Dry mouth
  • rash

so these were some of the side effects that can occur in both of these drugs and they help a lot while doing the Allegra vs Claritin comparison.


Interactions are the common complications experienced by the drugs like in this case the interactions that can occur in bot are with the similar drugs like them or taking both of these together so we must avoid that and now coming towards the interactions that help with the Allegra vs Claritin  comparison are such as that Claritin must not be taken with amiodarone due to complications that can result on the use of them together and Allegra cant be taken with the antacids that most of the people use normally.

So now it is a compulsion on you to discuss it with the doctor or pharmacist to tell you which drug from Allegra versus Claritin you must give preference to and you should go as the reference is given o you by the pharmacist in the OTC case.

Dry Skin on Penis

Dry Skin on Penis Reasons and Cure

Dry Skin on Penis is no doubt something that requires some attention. Because Dry Skin on Penis is not something normal, and that Dry Skin on Penis makes it look really disgusting. But first of all, you need to know that Dry Skin on Penis is not any kind of Sexually Transmitted Diseases or any kind of warts. Before this Dry Skin on Penis even starts to get visible there will be some symptoms which you might experience.

First of all, there will be extreme itching, and due to that your skin starts to peel off, then there is also rashes and red spots around the penis.

Reasons for Dry Skin on Penis

And soon after that cracks would start to appear which will, later on, bleed upon scratching and it gets all crusty. But you should know that all these symptoms do not appear on their own, instead, there are some reasons which you are not even aware of. First of all, there are allergies, and as the penile area is one of the most sensitive parts of a male body.

So, the products causing that allergy could be one of the main reasons for Dry Skin on Penis. Usually, men are allergic to deodorants or any other latex, and if somehow, they have used it over the penile area then that will start the allergic reaction, which later could cause Dry Skin on Penis. And not just this but there are some latex condoms as well, so it would be better for you to avoid them, especially in the cold weather when the air is usually dry.

Chemical Products Causing Dry Skin on Penis

And due to the sensitive penis skin, it is not suitable for you to use any soap which would dry out all the moisture from your skin. Especially for this whole area around the penis, you should try to use some moisturized soap, or even a baby shampoo would be perfect too.

Due to this, all the skin around this area remains soft and moisturized. Then while washing clothes many people just use some tough detergents in order to remove all the stains from it, but they do not realize that detergent will take away all the softness of your clothes. So, make sure you should also use fabric softener to keep them perfect for you to wear and to protect your penile area.

Then some people just want to be done with sex or masturbation, and they do not even realize that doing it with a dry penis will surely cause Dry Skin on Penis. So best for you is to keep it lubricated while you are having an intercourse or if even if you want to do masturbation.

Clothes Causing Dry Skin on Penis

Then the question would arise that what type of lubricant should be used, as there are natural and chemical lubricants available in the market. So, the best for you is to avoid those chemical lubricants which could damage your penis skin, and soon will leave you with Dry Skin on Penis. Then you need to make sure that you are wearing loose clothes, because tight clothes may give you good looks, but actually they are not good for your penis.

While you are wearing tight clothes, your penis will constantly be chafing with them which is also another reason for causing Dry Skin on Penis. Also, avoid wearing underwear, instead you must wear boxers as they are loose and comfortable for your penis as well. Then comes the fabric you are going to wear, so make sure that you must wear soft fabrics like cotton and flexible denim.

Then comes yeast infection which is a fungal infection and leaves white and red spots on your penis. And it also causes itching with peeling skin. And not just this but there is also pain and swelling on your penis as well.

Dry Skin on Penis due to Yeast Infection

And after some time your penis skin starts to bleed which is also the same symptom for Dry Skin on Penis. And Dry Skin on Penis and Yeast Infection it is painful to perform intercourse or even to urinate as well. So, the simple solution to get rid of both of these problems is to keep that area clean and dried out with no moist environment.

Then you must apply some antibacterial ointment all the way from the head of the penis towards the foreskin and till the end. And keep using that ointment for some time every day till all the symptoms of Dry Skin on Penis and Penile Yeast Infection goes away. Usually, the ointment is the best solution for these problems, but if it still keeps getting worst then you need to consult some physician for any other treatment he will prescribe you.

And as these symptoms are painful so it will be better for you to avoid having any sexual activity until you are fully recovered, otherwise as you already know that it is STD.

Dry Skin on Penis due to other Health Problems

Then further there is Eczema which is another reason for Dry Skin on Penis. But this medical problem really gets worst and due to this itching gets intense and not just this but bumps start to appear on the shaft of the penis with dead skin over it. And more you scratch this chapped skin, more it gets worst. So it is better for you to consult some dermatologist, and he will suggest you with the best treatment.

But you need to be really careful while you are using some medicated cream for Dry Skin on Penis. Then comes Psoriasis which is a condition in which your skin starts to build up cells faster than usual, and in this process, your skin starts to get red, and itching starts.

And of course, more you are going to scratch more you will get Dry Skin on Penis. Furthermore, this condition would get intense as well if you will not consult some dermatologist and keeps on rubbing your skin. And only skin specialist is going to cure this condition using ultraviolet rays, so you need not use any kind of medication over your penis.

Drool Rash

Drool Rash and What You Need to do About it?

Drool Rash is an example of all the conditions or problems that you don’t know can happen with children. If you are just a new parent and don’t know how to deal with such things like the drool rash when it comes to your baby then you don’t have to worry anymore because with the help of internet you can know about everything that you need to know about such medical issues.

From why it happens to what you can do to treat such medical conditions without having to go to your doctor every time all can be found here on the internet. As we know that babies drool almost all the time and that is not only when they are teething but they actually drool almost all the time and this is why they usually get the drool rash and this type of rash can be very painful.

The drool rash happens on the lips and the area around the mouth and also in the folds of the necks and on cheeks too and this rash appears as the small red bumps and since the skin of the children is very soft and sensitive they can easily get the rash from the drool too. The presence of drool almost all the time is what that triggers this type of the rash.

This also happens because the skin around the mouth remains wet and there may also be some food particles left there so this gives the suitable environment for the growth of bacteria and this usually occurs because of the neglection of the parents when it comes to keeping your baby hygienic.

How Can You Prevent the Drool Rash?

You can prevent your baby from having the drool rash by wiping the drool from the face of your baby. When you are wiping your baby’s face you should make sure not to rub harshly but instead dab it slightly with very little pressure so it won’t affect the skin of your baby. The infant’s star drooling when they are 2 to 3 months old and even when they hadn’t started teething yet so it’s better to keep a gentle cloth with your baby to wipe the drool and also the food material after feeding your baby.

You can also attach a bib to your baby’s neck so that when your baby is drooling it won’t wet the clothes of the baby but instead the bib will get wet and this will avoid the wet clothing to rub with your baby’s skin and cause irritation.

Drool Rash Treatment

Now that the Drool Rash has happened to your baby you should keep the prevention in your mind for the next time and start the treatment of the drool rash. Don’t use any harsh medications but instead, a soothing ointment and a petroleum jelly will help your baby’s skin to heal slowly on its own.

You can also use a soothing lotion that is suitable for the child your baby’s age and you should use the detergents that make the clothes soft and are fragrance-free to avoid any type of the irritation to your baby’s skin and this way the drool rash will heal on your own.

If your baby is drooling because he or she has started teething then try using a cool teether or pacifier that will help with the soreness of your baby’s gums and this way the drooling will slow down a little bit and then your baby’s skin will remain dry and this will help with the treatment of drool rash.

Visiting a Paediatrician for the Drool Rash

A drool rash is not really a big problem and you do not necessarily have to go to a paediatrician unless there is no sign of recovery even after one week use of the home remedy or the rash is getting worse and have cracked the skin. In such case consulting your paediatrician will be a good thing so they can suggest a healing cream or ointment for your baby. They may also prescribe you with medication that can comfort your child a little.

So, these ways are how you can prevent and treat a drool rash.

Provigil vs Nuvigil

Provigil Vs Nuvigil- Which One Will Get You the Precious SLEEP

Provigil Vs Nuvigil comparison is for those who are looking for the best sleeping drug. Sleep is a very important part of our life but in the certain condition, we need to be more awake than usual like while driving to a long distance and while doing a job where you have to be on high alert and be attentive and in such situations, you should take medications that induce the wakefulness in a person.

There are some of the illegal drugs that are used by the people for the same reason so if you think you need to be more awake you must not go for the illegal ways when there is a legal thing that you can adopt like you can discuss it with your doctor and if they see you fit enough to use it properly they will prescribe it to you easily.

But the drugs like this must be used in situations like some of the sleep disorders. Some of the drugs are used for the purpose to induce the wakefulness and the high alertness in a person. There are a number of conditions for which the wakefulness is needed to be created and the include the following some

  • Narcolepsy is the condition in which drugs like Provigil and Nuvigil can be used and I this condition the daytime drowsiness occurs and there are also some of the sudden attacks of the sleep throughout the day in which you can’t help but sleep and this condition should be addressed and treated with them medications like the Provigil and Nuvigil.
  • Obstructive sleep apnea is another disorder for which such drugs are used and for which Provigil vs Nuvigil comparison is being done. In this disorder the throat muscles relaxed when you are asleep and causing your breathing to stop and start while you are asleep and your breathing becomes very irregular and this is a really dangerous situation and it also disturbs your sleep which means you feel drowsiness in the daytime so to avoid that these medications are being used that create the alertness and allows you to perform your normal task.
  • shift work disorder is another disorder for which the Provigil vs Nuvigil comparison is being made. This occurs in the people who have different job duties shifts so they are not relaxed much and in the state of drowsiness when at work so this means the alertness is needed.

Nuvigil and Provigil

Now before we get to move into a discussion of the Provigil vs Nuvigil we must know how both of these drugs work and how do they work what they work. Armodafinil is the drug substance that is present in the Nurvigil and Provigil contains the drug substance modafinil.

How does the act in the body be by increasing the certain chemicals in the body that creates the alertness? The mechanism of action of armodafinil is not yet defined. Both of them are the prescription medicines which means you cannot buy them unless you have the prescription written by a doctor. Both of these drugs are prescribed by the doctor if you have any of the above disorders and it is not available as an over the counter drug because it has the potential to be abused.

Provigil vs Nuvigil comparison

Now coming towards the main topic of interest which is the Provigil vs Nuvigil comparison we will see in which aspects these drugs match and differentiate from each other and base upon the differences in them which drug will be better for you according to your condition. When it comes to the similarities,  both of these drugs are similar in their function as they both are used for the treatment of narcolepsy, ADHD, OSA and SWD and both of these drugs are available in the oral dosage form. But the strength of these tablets in which they are available in the market for the purpose of the sale is different.

The Provigil is present in the strength of 100 mg and 200 mg while the strength of tablets of the Nuvigil is 50 mg, 150 mg, 200 mg, 250 mg but the half-life of both f these drugs is same which is 15 hours for both drugs. So this means you want to be in the need of the next dose after the first one for at least 15 hours.

Since these disorders take a lot of time for treatment so the birth of these drugs has long-term treatment. And another similar thing in them is the potential of abuse by both of these drugs but in both the cases, there are no withdrawal effects but the Nivigil versus the Provigil is a controlled substance which means its intake by the patient is to be monitored by the doctor.

Another thing that helps with the Provigil vs Nuvigil comparison is the presence of the dosage regimen of the of them. Like the treatment of OSA and the narcolepsy, the dosage regimen for Nuvigil is the 150 to 250 mg once in a day in the morning time while that of Provigil is the 200 mg one time a day in the morning. And as for the treatment of the SWD, the Nuvigil tablet of 150 mg is taken one hour before the work shift starts while the Provigil 200 mg is taken before work hours too.

Side effects


In the Provigil vs Nuvigil comparison, some of the side effects are similar while some of them are very different. These different side effects are what help along with a choice among both of these drugs. The side effects that are similar to them are

  • Troubled sleep
  • A headache
  • Nausea
  • Chest pain
  • Mania
  • Suicidal thoughts

While the differences that will help us make the decision are back pain and stuffy nose which are present in the Provigil and Nuvigil don’t have any further side effects. So these drug features that are different between them helps you determine which drug you should take and if you feel that you need switching of these drugs then you can discuss it with your doctor.